Gender Representation in the Media, and Sexualization
- Males outnumber females 3 to 1 in family films. In contrast, females comprise just over 50% of the population in the United States. Even more staggering is the fact that this ratio, as seen in family films, is the same as it was in 1946. Source
- Women are about 37% of prime-time TV characters (they are 51% of the U.S. population). Women 45 and older are only 15% of prime-time TV characters. Source
- Male TV characters (41%) were more likely to be shown “on the job” than female characters (28%). Men were more likely to talk about work than women were (52% vs. 40%) and less likely to talk about romantic relationships (49% vs. 63%) Source
- The American Psychological Association estimates that teens are exposed to 14,000 sexual references & innuendos per year on TV.
- Between 1999 and 2009, the amount of degrading sexualization found in song lyrics tripled.
- When men are shown in the background of a video, they are most often fully clothed. But when women are in the background, approximately half the time they are dressed in ways that expose or focus on their breasts and rear ends. Source
- Only 20% of news articles are about women, and many of these stories are of violence and victimhood. Source
- In 2011, women comprised 18% of all directors, executive producers, producers, writers, cinematographers, and editors working on the top 250 domestic grossing films. Source
Sexism in America: Alive, Well, and Ruining Our Future by Barbara J. Berg, PhD
The Lolita Effect: The Media Sexualization of Young Girls and What We Can Do About It by M. Gigi Durham, PhD
Getting Real: Challenging the Sexualisation of Girls by Melinda Tankard Reist and Noni Hazlehurst
Gender Disparity On Screen and Behind the Camera in Family Films; The Executive Report, Stacy L. Smith, Ph.D. & Marc Choueiti, University of Southern California, Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism
Gender Stereotypes: An Analysis of Popular Films and TV; Dr. Stacy L. Smith (Annenberg School for Communication) and Crystal Allene Cook (The Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media)
The Celluloid Ceiling: Behind-the-Scenes Employment of Women in the Top 250 Films of 2011 by Martha M. Lauzen, Ph.D.
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